Prickly Pear Crops: How To Develop These Spiny Meals

Prickly pear vegetation (Opuntia spp.) are a big genus of cacti native to the Americas. They’re each edible and decorative vegetation of historic significance in southwestern United States and Mexico. One even seems on the flag of Mexico as a part of the nation’s creation story. 

Prickly pear vegetation are standard for his or her distinctive pads and colourful fruit, each of that are extremely nutritious. These vegetation are hardy and simple to develop, which make them a preferred alternative for gardeners. Nonetheless, when rising prickly pear, you will need to know that this can be a prolific plant that may unfold and develop right into a dense colony underneath the correct situations.

Opuntia is a big plant genus with many species. Their particular development wants and geographies range, however all are likely to favor full solar and well-draining soil. Prickly pear vegetation are an excellent addition of visible curiosity and taste to many gardens.  

Fast Care Information

Prickly pear plant
Prickly pear plant.
Widespread Identify(s) Prickly pear, jointed cactus, Indian fig, barbary fig, japanese prickly pear, bunny ears cactus, nopal, tuna fruit, tiger pear
Scientific Identify Opuntia spp.
Days to Harvest Relying on the species, it could take a number of years of development to have the ability to harvest the cactus fruit.
Gentle Full solar 
Water Water each 10-14 days and examine to verify the soil is totally dry earlier than water. 
Soil Nicely-draining gravelly to sandy soil
Fertilizer Sometimes no fertilizer is required for outside vegetation. Indoor vegetation could profit from a balanced fertilizer. Use excessive nitrogen fertilizer to advertise pad development for harvest. Use a low-nitrogen fertilizer to advertise fruiting and flowering. 
Pests Cochineal scale, cactus longhorn beetle, cactus moths, cactus bugs  
Ailments Phyllosticta pad spot, Opuntia Sammon’s virus 

All About Prickly Pear Crops

Ripe prickly pears
Ripe prickly pears.

Prickly pears are a part of the genus Opuntia and subgenus Platyopuntia, or “flat-Opuntia”, due to their distinctive fleshy pads that stack on prime of one another. As they develop, new pads develop on prime of earlier ones. These pads are coated in spines and are sometimes inexperienced to blue in shade. 

One selection, the O. santa rita, is putting due to its vivid violet shade. Because of their form, prickly pear vegetation are also referred to as paddle cactus and jointed cactus. Prickly pear cactus are recognized for his or her showy pink, orange, crimson, or yellow flowers which might bloom underneath the correct situations in spring or summer time. 

The flowers lead to edible, pear-shaped fruits that are known as cactus pear or tuna fruit. These fruits might tackle many alternative colours akin to inexperienced, yellow, crimson, or purple. The looks of flowers, fruits, spines, and pads are all depending on environmental situations.  

Prickly pear vegetation are nicely tailored to arid climates which signifies that they’ve wide-spreading and fibrous roots to maximise their floor space to seize restricted moisture. Additionally they have the potential of fixing carbon dioxide at night time and shutting their stomata throughout the day to help with water retention. 

They mostly unfold vegetatively when pads break off and root, however may unfold over massive distances within the droppings of animals who devour the fruits. New vegetation can develop year-round and require minimal care as soon as established.  

Sure species of Opuntia are native to the American southwest whereas others originate from Mexico and the West Indies. Prickly pear will also be present in different areas of the world akin to across the Mediterranean basin, Africa, and Australia. Of the almost sixty completely different species of Opuntia, one species, O. aurantiaca, is federally categorized as a noxious weed. 

Prickly pear pads and fruits are each thought of superfoods for his or her excessive dietary worth however should be ready with care. Whereas some prickly pear vegetation have massive spines, others have hair-like barbed bristles that may irritate the pores and skin. The pads or nopales might be sliced and pickled, juiced, or cooked and utilized in salads. The fruits might be eaten uncooked or used to make jams, jellies, candies, wines, and syrups. 

There are lots of further makes use of for prickly pear vegetation together with as livestock feed and even pure dye. The juice of mature fruits has been traditionally used to dye wool or cloth because of the power of the colour and in addition antifungal and antibacterial properties. 

Prickly Pear Varieties

Opuntia 'Santa Rita'
Opuntia ‘Santa Rita’.

Prickly pears are half of a big genus of Opuntia vegetation with many sorts and almost 60 species. Listed below are a number of widespread varieties:

Opuntia ficus indica, generally often known as Indian fig or barbary fig, is a species native to Mexico and Central America. It’s extensively cultivated all over the world as a domesticated crop for its candy edible fruits. A typical specimen has a blue-green coloration, thick and flat pads, and orange or yellow flowers. It grows nicely in poor soil situations and underneath excessive temperatures. 

Opuntia humifusa is a sprawling species native to the japanese United States and Canada and is often often known as the japanese prickly pear cactus.  It has clusters of small, spherical pads and showy pink or yellow flowers. As a result of this species can tolerate chilly temperatures, it is likely one of the solely prickly pear vegetation that may be discovered all through the japanese U.S. and at the same time as far north as Ontario. 

Native Individuals not solely ate the pads and the fruit for meals but additionally used them for medicinal profit. This species tends to shrivel and dry up within the winter however will regain its blue-green shade beginning in early spring to early summer time. 

Opuntia microdasys is also referred to as angel’s wings, bunny ears, or polka-dotted cactus for his or her clusters of sharp yellow glochids. It’s native to northern Mexico and southwestern U.S. This species is just not frost tolerant in contrast with the japanese prickly pear and can should be introduced indoors throughout chilly spills. It is usually generally grown as a houseplant. 

Different well-known styles of prickly pear vegetation embrace beavertail cactus (Opuntia basilaris), violet prickly pear (Opuntia santa-rita), pancake prickly pear (Opuntia chlorotica), big prickly pear (Opuntia streptacantha), Texas prickly pear (Opuntia engelmannii), and coastal prickly pear (Opuntia littoralis)

In perennial cool seasons, prickly pear cacti can develop as much as 12 toes tall and 4 toes huge. Broad and waxy ones can have pads that develop as much as 6 inches lengthy and might attain 20 toes tall. 

Planting Prickly Pear Cactus

Prickly pear cactus is a straightforward visible curiosity so as to add to your backyard or dwelling. They are often planted at any time of yr, however the perfect time to develop them is throughout the hotter months of the yr when the soil is heat and there may be full solar. 

As with many succulents, planting depth is essential to stop rotting. Younger prickly pear pads ought to be capable of stand upright and at a depth of round ½ to ¾ inches under the soil floor at its deepest. 

Prickly pear cactus desire well-draining soil and full daylight. They’re extraordinarily drought tolerant and might develop in a wide range of soils, however they do finest in sandy or rocky soil. They are often planted within the floor or in containers, so long as the container has ample drainage. 

Prickly pears, like many succulents, might be simply rooted and propagated. Whereas it’s attainable to start out them from seed, the germination charges are low and it takes a very long time for the plant to develop.  

Prickly Pear Plant Care

Opuntia cactus pads
Opuntia cactus pads.

Prickly pear cactus is comparatively low upkeep and might thrive with the right combination of daylight, water, and vitamins. Correct care and fertilization can encourage fruit manufacturing. Some of the widespread errors on the subject of caring for prickly pear vegetation is making an attempt to offer it an excessive amount of love by overwatering. 

Solar and Temperature

Prickly pear cactus thrives underneath full solar situations. It’s finest to develop them in an space that receives ample and direct daylight per day. Whereas most Opuntia cactus will not be tolerant of chilly climate, there are particular species that may be hardy right down to zone 3b and thrive within the cooler climates of Canada. 

Water and Humidity

As desert dwellers, these cacti are extremely tailored to outlive in arid situations and dry climate. Water your vegetation each 10-14 days or every time the soil is totally dry at a depth of 2-3 inches under the floor. Don’t water if this area has any wetness. You could want to scale back irrigation within the winter months with shorter sunlight hours and fewer evaporation. 

When the nighttime temperatures drop under 60° F, cease watering altogether. These vegetation are sometimes really helpful to drought-conscious gardeners as a water-efficient decorative. Use normal watering finest practices, and hold irrigation near the bottom of the plant as a substitute of overhead. 


Prickly pear cactus thrives in well-draining soil and might even tolerate poor soil situations. If you happen to’re rising these vegetation as a houseplant, choose a cactus potting combine to make sure that the soil is appropriate. Prickly pear vegetation should not have particular pH necessities and might develop in poor soil high quality.

Fertilizing Prickly Pear Cactus

Most growers don’t use further fertilizer for prickly pear, as water is crucial issue that impacts the well being and development of the plant. Nonetheless, if you happen to plan to have massive harvests of pads, you should utilize a extra nitrogen-based fertilizer. 

To advertise extra showy flowers and ample fruits, use a fertilizer that doesn’t have nitrogen or one with a 0-10-0 NPK. Comply with the producer’s instructions on the label and apply as soon as a month year-round. Indoor cacti may profit from occasional fertilization with a balanced (10-10-10) fertilizer for the reason that vitamins in pots are likely to get depleted sooner. 

Pruning Prickly Pear Cactus

Pruning prickly pear cactus is just not typically required except the aim is to regulate the growth of the plant, take cuttings or take away a broken or diseased part. There are a number of pathogens that may have an effect on prickly pears. 

The removing of those illness sections will assist handle the unfold of the illness, notably if the pathogen spreads via sporulation. Pads on the decrease a part of the plant are essentially the most susceptible to illness because of the comparatively increased humidity close to these areas. 

Prickly Pear Cactus Propagation

Prickly pear cactus might be propagated utilizing a wide range of strategies, together with cuttings, seeds, and grafting. 

The most typical and efficient methodology of propagation is to take pad cuttings, just like how prickly pear spreads within the wild. Use rubbing alcohol to sanitize instruments earlier than beginning. Snip a wholesome pad off of a mature plant and wait a number of days for the wound to dry. Place the cut-side down right into a pot with soil and water nicely. The chopping will root inside a weeks days. Ultimately, new pads will bud from the margins of the chopping.  

One other methodology is to plant seeds though the germination fee might be low. Take a ripe fruit and wash away any fruit pulp surrounding the seed. Use a pointy software or sandpaper to scarify the robust outer seed coat after which soak the seeds for a number of days earlier than planting. Be certain the seeds are buried very shallowly to encourage germination. 

We at Epic Gardening have a submit that particulars each taking cuttings and rising from seed for prickly pear cactus propagation.

The third and extra commercially used methodology of propagation is grafting. This system is often used to provide a extra fascinating development behavior, flowers, or enhance the plant’s survivability by grafting it onto hardier root inventory. This methodology may be very time intensive and never sometimes utilized by the house gardener. 

Harvesting and Storing Prickly Pear Cactus

Harvested prickly pear fruit
Harvested prickly pear fruit.

Prickly pear cacti might be harvested for his or her fleshy pads or for fruits. Be certain to deal with each with care as to not injure your self within the course of. Don’t wash the pads or fruits till after the spines and glochids have been eliminated. Even spineless varieties can nonetheless trigger irritation from their tiny glochids.


Prickly pear fruits should be harvested when ripe as a result of they won’t proceed to ripen as soon as picked. In North America, their season sometimes begins in August and ends in September. As soon as the fruit has been harvested, it may be saved within the fridge for a number of days or processed and frozen for long-term storage. 

The most effective methods of harvesting is to make use of tongs along with sporting gloves. Gently squeeze them to check for ripeness. The fruits are able to be picked when the tongs go away behind a slight indentation. The dimensions and shade could not all the time be the perfect indication of ripeness since that relies on the variability. 

Use the tongs to fastidiously twist the fruit till it separates from the pad. As a result of the glochids on the fruits might be very sharp and tiny, they could trigger irritation if not eliminated. Use the tongs to carry the fruit in place whereas utilizing an extended lighter to burn the skin of the fruit. 

These glochids simply burn off and might make processing simpler. You may also char off the skin utilizing tongs and the flames of a fuel range. Run the charred fruit underneath water and use a vegetable brush to take away the pores and skin. 

Use tongs and put on thick gloves when harvesting prickly pear pads. Bend the pad away from the supporting pad beneath. Make a clear lower on the joint utilizing sanitized instruments akin to a pointy knife. It’s higher to reap the pads within the morning as a result of the acid content material in them varies all through the day. 

Harvest youthful pads quite than massive pads for a extra tender texture. Use a knife to fastidiously lower away the spines or needle beds and peel the pad to entry the flesh. Nopal cactus is an ingredient accessible in grocery shops. Sometimes, business growers develop spineless nopales varieties for culinary use.


Prickly pear fruits might be saved for a number of days within the fridge earlier than use. Complete fruits will also be saved within the freezer as one of many steps to juicing. Prickly pear juice might be saved for as much as one yr within the freezer. Juices will also be made into jelly, candies, jams, syrups, and even alcoholic drinks to increase the shelf life.  

If you happen to’re not utilizing the fruits for juice, peel them, take away the seeds, and slice them into bite-sized chunks. Place the items in a single layer on a tray till frozen. They’ll then be transferred into freezer baggage and saved for a number of months.

Prickly pear pads can’t be saved for long-term within the fridge because of their excessive water content material and tendency to show slimy. Whereas they are often frozen or stress canned like inexperienced beans, these processes will change the feel of the flesh to be mushier. Prickly pear cactus might be preserved as a pickle or dehydrated utilizing the oven or a dehydrator to 175° F levels over a number of hours to help with long-term storage. 


Prickly pear with scale and other pest issues
Prickly pear with scale and different pest points.

Prickly pear is often a straightforward plant to look after, however there is likely to be some widespread points related to rising situations, pests, and ailments. It’s essential to watch the plant and slim down the attainable causes to seek out the correct options. 

Rising Issues

The most typical rising issues can happen because of overwatering. Root rot is a matter that may happen when the soil is just too moist for too lengthy. It is very important let the soil dry fully between watering and to not bury cuttings too deeply to stop this subject. Having ample draining can be essential for wholesome development. Poorly draining soil can even enhance the probabilities of root rot. 

Underwatering may happen, particularly with houseplants. The pads will wilt, yellow, and brown, and finally die if not water for an extended time period.

Numerous climate situations may trigger some development points. Sunscald is feasible even for desert vegetation in the event that they had been initially grown in greenhouses and nurseries. Sunburn on cactus manifests in massive tan patches that may finally scar.  

If you’re buying cacti from a greenhouse and plan to make use of them within the panorama, you need to slowly transfer the plant exterior for a number of hours a day to assist them acclimate to a special atmosphere and full solar. Transplanting in late winter may additionally assist to stop sunburn for the reason that photo voltaic rays are much less intense.   

Frost and freeze can injury species that aren’t cold-tolerant. Choose the correct species on your native situations and canopy your vegetation with a floating row cowl or cotton sheet in case of an unseasonable chilly spell. In case your vegetation are potted in containers, they are often moved indoors till the climate improves. 

Hail may trigger some injury to prickly pear vegetation and might be mitigated utilizing these similar strategies.  


With its sharp spines and worsening barbs, the prickly pear cactus has a pure protection system in opposition to many animals and customary pests. Nonetheless, there are a number of bugs that aren’t postpone by their formidable look. 

Cochineal scale (Dactylopius coccus) is a mealybug-like scale insect that secretes a white, waxy outer coating; it appears to be like like tufts of cotton on the stems and pads of the plant. To confirm this insect, crush the insect and search for deep crimson physique fluids. Crushed scale was used historically as cochineal dye. The scales might be washed away by a powerful stream of water or an software of insecticidal cleaning soap. 

Cactus longhorn beetle (Moneilema gigas) is one other widespread pest that assaults a number of varieties of cacti together with these within the Opuntia genus. Grownup beetles vary from 1-1 ¼ inches in size and are shiny and black in look. They have an inclination to feed alongside the margins of the pads and their larvae would possibly tunnel via the stems and roots which can trigger the plant to die. 

The beetles are energetic in early mornings and evenings and are straightforward to identify to choose off. Hand-picking this pest often may help to get the problem underneath management. Very spiny varieties are sometimes not affected because of their pure defenses.

Throughout lengthy durations of drought, small mammals would possibly nibble on the cacti to entry water. These vegetation can recuperate from a number of bites and no further controls are wanted.  

A number of bugs have additionally been used as a organic management to regulate the unfold of invasive cacti. The cactus moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) was efficiently used in opposition to invasive cacti in Australia and was launched from South America. The larvae of this moth burrows into the pads and consumes the flesh from the within. 

The invasion additionally makes the vegetation extra susceptible to secondary fungal and bacterial infections. This insect is just not present in North America. Different species of bugs have been used within the U.S. which incorporates the North American cactus moth (Melitara dentata), the blue cactus borer (Olycella subumbrella), and the cactus bug (Chelinidea vittiger).


Prickly pears are hardy and resilient vegetation that aren’t inclined to many ailments. There are solely two to concentrate on. 

Phyllosticta pad spot is brought on by a fungal pathogen. The fungus will produce small, black reproductive constructions that lead to black lesions on Opuntia species. Spores unfold rapidly via rain or wind and might trigger heavy infections after moist durations. One of the simplest ways to fight this illness is to maintain the pads dry and to take away any pads with seen lesions. In case of a extreme an infection, the complete plant must be eliminated. 

Just like the Phyllosticta pad spot, one other illness, Sammons’ virus, additionally doesn’t have management strategies apart from removing of the contaminated elements or the entire plant. This virus is carefully associated to the Tobacco Mosaic Virus and is categorized as a Tobamovirus. Like TMV, this virus ends in yellow rings on the tip of the pads. The infections don’t appear to trigger noticeable injury to plant well being.  

Ceaselessly Requested Questions

Ripening prickly pears
Ripening prickly pears.

Q: The place does prickly pear develop finest?

A: Develop prickly pear vegetation in sunny areas with gravelly to sandy soil. Usually, vegetation within the wild might be discovered on the rocky facet of south-facing slopes and hills. They’re nicely suited to arid to semi-arid landscapes. 

Q: How briskly does prickly pear develop?

A: Underneath the correct situations, prickly pears can rapidly colonize an space via vegetative propagation and kind a dense colony. This poses some concern for wildlife and the grazing high quality of land. Throughout drought years, they’ll sometimes outperform different native vegetation like grasses.

Q: Why are prickly pears an issue?

A: They’ll unfold rapidly if unchecked in wild areas all over the world and is a selected subject in Australia. There may be additionally one species that’s categorized as a noxious weed within the U.S. A typical land administration observe is to make use of scheduled burning to regulate their unfold. Nonetheless, vegetation might be simply managed in dwelling gardens. 

Q: Are prickly pears straightforward to develop?

A: Sure, prickly pears are straightforward to develop as soon as established. 

Q: Are you able to contact prickly pear?

A: No, you shouldn’t contact them as a result of they’ve removable spines or sharp hairs known as glochids. Each could cause discomfort and pores and skin irritation. It’s finest to deal with prickly pear vegetation with heavy-duty rubber gloves and tongs. 

Q: What month do prickly pears bloom?

A: Prickly pears sometimes bloom from late spring to late summer time relying on the precise selection and rising atmosphere. Some can begin blooming as early as April whereas others received’t begin till early summer time. The months in bloom additionally rely upon by which hemisphere these vegetation are grown. 

Q: What’s the lifespan of a prickly pear cactus?

A: These vegetation have a large lifespan relying on the variability and might stay an extended life underneath appropriate situations. The Opuntia ficus indica, for instance, can stay as much as 80 years. 

Q: Are you able to eat a prickly pear fruit uncooked?

A: Sure, you possibly can eat uncooked prickly pear fruit or juice the fruit to devour as a drink or for use as a pure dye. Probably the most generally consumed selection is the O. ficus indica

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